A) Homogeneous or diffuse nuclear staining:
☆ It usually reflects antibodies to chromatin, histones, and, occasionally,
■ B )Speckled pattern:
☆ It refers to the presence of uniform or
☆ This is one of the most commonly observed patterns of fluorescence and therefore the least specific.
☆ It reflects the presence of antibodies to
non-DNA nuclear constituents such as Sm antigen, ribonucleoprotein, and SS-A and SS-B reactive antigens.
■ C) Centromeric pattern.
Patients with systemic sclerosis often contain antibodies specific for centromeres, which give rise to this pattern.
■ D)Nucleolar pattern:
☆ It refers to the presence of a few discrete spots of fluorescence within the nucleus and represents antibodies to RNA.
☆ This pattern is reported most often
in patients with systemic sclerosis.