1).During development the parts of ear develop at different intervals.
Which of the following is not adult size birth?
c.Middle ear cavity
The part which is not of adult size at birth is the maxillary antrum
Maxillary antrum attains the adult size by 15yrs of age
All the three ossicles are of adult size and shape at brith
Stapes grow to adult size by 18weeks while malleus and incus grow to adult size by 15 weeks.
The middle ear cavity is nearly adult sized at birth and same applies to the oval window and round window
Ref.Pediatric Otolaryngology,volume1,By cuneyt M.Alper,Ellis M.Arjmand,sylvan E.Stool Margaretha L.Casselbrant,2003,
2).Which of the following statement is not true about sterberg canal?
a.Causes intrasphenoidal meiningocele
b.Represents persistent craniopharyngeal canal
c.Located anterior and medial to foramen rotundum
d.Located Posterior and lateral to foramen rotundum
Sternberg’s canal or persistent lateral cranio-pharyngeal canal:
It is caused by incomplete fusion of the greater wing of shenoid with the pre-sphenoid and represents a persistent lateral cranio
It is situated in the para sellar region in the middle cranial fossa and lies antreior and medial to the foramen rotundum.
It can communicate with the sphenoid sinus, the pterygo-platine fossa, the naso pharynx,or stright through the bone to emerge at
the base of the skull depending on the individula course of this canal.
Ref. Theodore schwartz,Vijay Anand, Chaptere2,Anatomy of the pituitary gland and parasellar region, Endoscopic pituitary surgery:
Endocrine, Neuro-Opthamologic and surgical management ,new york,Clinical anatomy of the Nose Nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
by Johannes lang,Page 88 Issues in Neurological surgery and specialties 2011 edition by Qashton action PHD, page 1593
3).Which of the follwing accompanying structure forms the superior border of epiploic oframen?
a. Head of pancreas
b. Caudate lobe of liver
c. Lesser Omentum
The Superior border of epiploic foramen is formed by the caudate process of caudate lobe of the liver.
The right margin of the lesser sac opens into greater sac through the opening of the lesser sac referred to as epiploic foramen
The following form the boundaries of epiploic foramen:
Anteriorly: Free border of the lesser omentum,Bile duct,hepatic artery and portal vein
Posteriorly Inferior vena cava
Inferiorly: First part of the duodenum
Superiorly: Caudate process of caudate lobe of the liver
Ref.Clinical anatomy by regions by richard S. Snell 8th edn,page 208
4).Which of the following respiratory structure is derived from the neural crest?
b.Epithelium of Primary bronchi
Strcute derived from the Neutral Creast include laryngeal cartilages
Structure derived from the visceral mesoderm include the endothelial cells in the simple squamous epithelium that lines the pulmonary capillaries
Structure derived from the deoderm include the epithelial lining of primary bronchi and the tracheal glands
Ref.Texbook of clinical embryology by Vishrm sing.
5).Which of the following muscles are not grouped togather as muscles of mastication?
The muscles of mastication are masseter,temporalis,medial and lateral pterygoid. These muscles are innervated by the
mandibular division of trigeminal nerve.
Masseter is involved in elevation and protrusion of the mandible
Temporalis elevates the mandible,chiefly with its vertical fibers,retracts the protruded mandible with its horizontal posterior fibers. Its
unilateral contraction helps in mastication
Medial pterygoid elevates the mandible
Lateral pterygoid: Its bilateral contraction initiates opening of the mouth by protruding the mandible and moving the articular disk
forward, its unilateral contraction elevates the mandible to the opposite side during mastication.
Ref.Thieme atlas of anatomy: Head and Neuroanatomy by micheal schuenke page48;Dynamics of the singing voice by Meribeth bunch dayme,5th