Q-1. Cognitive model of depression is given by
Cognitive model of depression is given by American psychiatrist A. T. Beck.
Beck believed that the cognitive symptoms of depression actually precede the affective and mood symptoms of depression.
According to Beck, what are central to depression are the negative thoughts, instead of hormonal changes or low rates of reinforcement as postulated by other theorists.
Q-2. Health thinking includes all except
Schneider suggested there were three features of healthy thinking:
Constancy: this is characteristic of a completed thought that does not change in content unless and until it is superseded by another consciously-derived thought
Organisation: the contents of thought are related to each other in consciousness and do not blend with each other, but are separated in an organized way.
Continuity: there is a continuity of the sense continuum, so that even the most heterogenous subsidiary thoughts, sudden ideas or observations that emerge are arranged in order in the whole content of consciousness.
Q-3. Reflex hallucinations is a morbid variety of
Reflex hallucinations occur when true sensory input in one sense leads to production of a hallucination in another sense, e.g. seeing a doctor writing (visual) and then feeling him writing across one’s stomach (tactile).
Synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.
Reflex hallucination is infact a hallucinatory form of Synesthesia.
Q-4. Formication & delusion of persecution occurs together in abuse of
Formication or tactile hallucination– Chronic abuse of amphetamine
Delusion of persecution– Acute intoxication of amphetamine
Formication & delusion of persecution occurs together in chronic abuse of cocaine.
Q-5. Best therapy suited to teach daily life skill to a mentally challenged child
a) CBT (Cognitive behavior therapy)
c) Cognitive reconstruction
d) Self instruction
Contingency management: In this the reward is set for the desired behavior, usually done for drug dependence and mentally challenged patients.
Token economy: Exchanging tokens as reward for desired behavior usually used for teaching skills to mentally retarded child