1).”Hallucination” is a disturbance of ?
Hallucinations are abnormal sensory perceptions (such as auditory, visual, olfactory, tactile/somatic, or gustatory) that the patient may or may not recognize as unreal. They arise without external cues. Auditory hallucinations are common in schizophrenia, whereas visual hallucinations are more typical of delirium. Olfactory and gustatory hallucinations are common with partial seizures.
2).Calcification is pathognomonic feature of ?
A. Malignant melanoma of choroid
C. Angiomatosis retinae
An ophthalmologist makes the diagnosis of retinoblastoma by the appearance of the tumor within the eye without pathologic confirmation. A white to creamy pink mass protruding into the vitreous matter suggests the diagnosis; intraocular calcifications and vitreous seeding are virtually pathognomonic of retinoblastoma. A CT scan of the orbits and MRI of the orbits/brain detects intraocular calcification, evaluates the optic nerve for tumor infiltration, and detects extraocular extension of tumor.
3).Largest lung volume is defined by?
A. Vital capacity
B. Functional residual capacity
C. Inspiratory capacity
Inspiratory capacity (IC) =TV+IRV
Functional residual capacity = ERV+RV
Vital capacity =ERV+TV+IRV
Total Lung Capacity =ERV+TV+IRV+RV
4).Precocious puberty is diagnosed when?
A) Secondary sexual characteristics appear before 8 years,menstruation occurs before 10 years
B) Secondary sexual characteristics appear before 8 years,menstruation occurs before 6 years
C) Secondary sexual characteristics appear before 10 years, menstruation occurs before 8 years
D) Secondary sexual characteristics appear before 6 years,menstruation occurs before 8 years
Precocious puberty is defined as pubertal development occurring below the age limit set for normal onset of puberty. Puberty is considered precocious in girls if the onset of secondary sexual characteristics occurs before age 8 years or The onset of menstruation prior to 10 years of age. Precocious puberty is more common in girls than in boys. This disparity is explained by the large number of girls with central idiopathic precocity, a rare condition in boys. Girls showing signs of puberty between 6 and 8 years of age often have a benign, slowly progressing form that requires no intervention. The age of pubertal onset may be advanced by obesity.
5).Pre- beta lipoproteins are the same as?
The plasma lipoproteins are divided into five major classes based on their relative density chylomicrons, very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs).
Major Lipoprotein Classes
Lipoprotein Electrophoretic Mobility Major Apolipoproteins Other Constituents
Chylomicrons Origin ApoB-48 Retinyl esters
Chylomicron remnants Slow pre-β ApoB-48 Retinyl esters
VLDL Pre-β ApoB-100 Vitamin E
IDL Slow pre-β ApoB-100 Vitamin E
LDL β ApoB-100 Vitamin E
HDL α ApoA-I LCAT, CETP paraoxonase
Lp(a) Pre-β ApoB-100