The paediatric disorder as shown in the photograph below will show which of the following features?
A. High alpha fetoprotein (AFP) amount.
B. Diagnosed by Sonogram.
C. Diagnosed by MRI.
D. All of the above.
Ans:D. All of the above.
The patient is suffering from Sacrococcygeal Teratoma.
It include components derived from all three embryonic layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These tissues are foreign to the location in which they are found.
Frequencies of the most common sites are as follows:
Sacrococcygeal - 40%
Ovary - 25%
Testicle - 12%
Brain - 5%
Other (including the neck and mediastinum) - 18%.
It is a congenital type of tumor known as a teratoma that develops at the base of the coccyx and is thought to be derived from the primitive streak.
They are benign 75% of the time, malignant 12% of the time, and the remainder are considered “immature teratomas” that share benign and malignant features.
It occurs in 1 in 30,000-70,000 live births. The female-to-male predominance is 4:1.
Fetal ultrasound and MRI are the mainstay of antenatal diagnosis of SCT.
MRI more accurately characterizes the intrapelvic and abdominal extent of the tumors and provides more information on compression of adjacent organs.
Tumor markers:High Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
SCTs are classified morphologically according to their relative extent outside and inside the body:
Altman type I — entirely outside, sometimes attached to the body only by a narrow stalk
Altman type II — mostly outside
Altman type III — mostly inside
Altman type IV — entirely inside; this is also known as a presacral teratoma or retrorectal teratoma