DESCRIBE IN DETAIL THE VARIOUS TYPES OF EXERCISES ?
B ) DISCUSS THE BENEFITS AND INDICATIONS OF ISOMETRIC EXERCISES ?
A 6 A ) Exercises are generally grouped into three types depending on the overall effect they have on the human body -
1 Aerobic exercises, such as cycling, walking, running, hiking, and playing tennis, focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance.
2 Anaerobic exercises, such as weight training, increase short-term muscle strength.
3 Flexibility exercises such as stretching improve the range of motion of muscles and joints.
4 Aerobic and anaerobic are the most commonly performed, so here is an overview of their qualities:
A ) Aerobic (or cardiovascular exercise, a term attributed to this kind of exercise because of its various benefits in cardiovascular health) refers to exercise that involves or improves oxygen consumption by the body.
B ) Aerobic means "with oxygen", and refers to the use of oxygen in the body's metabolic or energy-generating process.
C ) Many types of exercise are aerobic, and by definition are performed at moderate levels of intensity for extended periods of time - This intensity can vary from 50-80% of maximum heart rate.
D ) In general, aerobic exercise is one performed at a low to moderate level of intensity over a long period of time.
1 For example, running a long distance at a moderate pace is an aerobic exercise, but sprinting is not.
2 Playing tennis, with near-continuous motion, is generally considered aerobic activity, while doubles tennis, with their brief bursts of activity punctuated by more frequent breaks, may not be predominantly aerobic.
E ) Among the recognized benefits of doing regular aerobic exercise are -
1 Stronger heart: the heart muscle is strengthened and enlarged, to improve its pumping efficiency and reduce the resting heart rate.
2 Increase of the total number of red blood cells in the body, to facilitate transport of oxygen throughout the body
3 Improved breathing: the muscles involved in respiration are strengthened, to facilitate the flow of air in and out of the lungs.
4 Improved muscle health: Aerobic exercise stimulates the growth of tiny blood vessels (capillaries) in muscles.
A ) This helps our bodies more efficiently deliver oxygen to muscles, can improve overall circulation and reduce blood pressure and remove irritating metabolic waste products such as lactic acid from the muscles.
5 Weight loss: Combined with a healthy diet and appropriate strength training, aerobic exercise may help lose weight.
6 Disease reduction: Extra weight is a contributing factor to conditions such as heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes and some forms of cancer.
A ) As weight loss occurs, the risk of developing these diseases decreases.
B ) In addition, weight-bearing aerobic exercise, such as walking, can reduce the risk of osteoporosis and its complications.
C ) Low-impact aerobic exercises, such as swimming, cycling and pool exercises, can help keep fit in those who have arthritis, without putting excessive stress on joints.
D ) Improved immune system: People who exercise regularly are less susceptible to minor viral illnesses such as colds and flu.
E ) It is possible that aerobic exercise helps activate your immune system and prepares it to fight off infection.
7 Improved mental health: Regular aerobic exercise releases endorphins, our bodies’ natural painkillers.
A ) Endorphins also reduce stress, depression and anxiety.
8 Increased stamina: Exercise may make us feel tired in the short term, i.e., during and right after the activity, but over the long term it will increase stamina and reduce fatigue.
A ) Anaerobic exercise is the type of exercise that enhances power and builds muscle mass.
B ) Muscles trained under anaerobic conditions develop differently, leading to greater performance in short duration, high intensity activities, which last up to about 2 minutes.
C ) The most common form of anaerobic exercise is strength exercise.
D ) Strength exercise is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, anaerobic endurance and size of skeletal muscles.
E ) There are many different methods of strength training, the most common of which are weight and resistance exercise.
F ) These two types of exercise use gravity (through weight stacks, plates or dumbells) or machines to oppose muscle contraction, and the terms can be used interchangeably.
G ) When properly performed, strength training can provide significant functional benefits and improvement in overall health and well-being including increased bone, muscle, tendon and ligament strength, toughness and endurance, improved joint function, reduced potential for injury resulting from weak muscles, improved cardiac function and elevated “good” HDL-cholesterol.
H ) It can also help maintain lean body mass (important for individuals attempting weight loss), decrease the risk of osteoporosis, develop coordination and balance.
Aerobic vs Anaerobic
1 Frequent and regular aerobic exercise has been shown to help prevent or treat serious and life-threatening chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, obesity, heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, insomnia, and depression.
Strength training appears to have continuous energy-burning effects that persist for about 24 hours after the training, though they do not offer the same cardiovascular benefits of aerobic exercises.
2 Both aerobic and anaerobic exercise also work to increase the mechanical efficiency of the heart by increasing cardiac volume (aerobic exercise), or myocardial thickness (strength training).
3 When generalized fitness is a professional operational requirement, as for athletes, combat services, police and fire personnel, aerobic exercise alone may not provide a well-balanced exercise program.
In particular, muscular strength, especially upper-body muscular strength, is usually neglected. Also, the metabolic pathways involved in anaerobic metabolism (glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation) that generate energy during high intensity, low duration tasks such as sprinting, are not exercised at peak rates
- Aerobic exercise is, however, an extremely valuable component of a balanced exercise program and is good for cardiovascular health.
Aerobics notably does not increase the basal metabolic rate as much as some forms of weight-training, and may therefore be less effective at reducing obesity. However, this form of exercise also allows for longer, more frequent activity and consumes more energy when the individual is active. In addition, the metabolic activity of an individual is heightened for several hours following a bout of aerobic activity.
5 Not everyone benefits equally from the different types of exercise .
There is tremendous variation in individual response to exercise: where most people will see a moderate increase in endurance from aerobic exercise, some individuals will as much as double their oxygen uptake, while others will never get any benefit at all from the exercise
6 Similarly, only a minority of people will show significant muscle growth after prolonged weight training, while a larger fraction experience improvements in strength
This is why people should experiment and try different types of physical activity, so that they can find what type they really like and what works for them.
B ) BENEFITS AND INDICATIONS OF ISOMETRIC EXERCISES
1 Isometric exercise or isometrics are a type of strength training in which the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction (compared to concentric or eccentric contractions, called dynamic/isotonic movements).
2 Isometrics are done in static positions, rather than being dynamic through a range of motion.
3 Plank is one of the most popular isometric exercise, as it challenges all core muscles.
4 In an overcoming isometric, the joint and muscle work against an immovable object. In contrast, in a yielding isometric, the joint and muscle are held in a static position while opposed by resistance.
5 In the context of the bench press, an example of a yielding isometric would be holding the bar at a given place even though it could be pressed higher, and an overcoming isometric would be pressing the bar up into the safety guards of a squat cage that prevent pushing the bar any higher.
6 The term "isometric" combines the Greek words "Isos" (equal) and "metria" (measuring), meaning that in these exercises the length of the muscle and the angle of the joint do not change, though contraction strength may be varied.
A ) This is in contrast to isotonic contractions, in which the contraction strength does not change, though the muscle length and joint angle do.
7 Resistance in isometric exercises typically involves contractions of the muscle using:
1 The body's own structure and ground
2 Structural items (e.g., pushing against a fence)
3 Free weights, weight machines, or elastic equipment (e.g., holding a weight in a fixed position)
4 Pressure-plate-type equipment that has a digital display of maximal force.
8 Depending on the goal of the exercise, the exertion can be maximal or sub-maximal.
9 Seated isometric exercises
One benefit of isometric exercise is that it can be done pretty much anywhere using your own body weight. significantly lowers blood pressure.
10 Seated isometric exercise is ideal for geriatrics or rehabilitation.
11 Isometric training maximally increases strength over all joint angles the exercises are performed at, similar to how dynamic exercises increase strength throughout the full range of motion, but with less risk of injury than weight training (no weights)
12 Prevents muscular atrophy experienced by space astronauts as a result of living in a zero gravity environment.
1 Isometric training allows individuals to sustain contractions for prolonged periods of time.
This can improve muscle endurance and postural control.
2 When combined with a dietary program, isometric training has been shown to decrease body fat levels, blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides.
3 Isometric training can also be very effective for individuals with limitations in flexibility or range of motion because tension can still be placed on the muscles without having to perform much movement.
4 Also, isometric muscle contractions are responsible for providing stability to our joints.
5 Over time, these benefits allow an individual to sustain prolonged contractions and even train with loads to improve strength, preparing for advanced forms of training which can further increase caloric expenditure.
6 Therefore, incorporating Isometric training into an integrated, periodized exercise plan can help strengthen the muscles so that they take stress away from the joints, potentially decreasing the amount of wear and tear they receive and thus, reduce injury risk.
A ) Treatment and Rehabilitation of Fractures
1 Isometric exercises are very useful when the strength of a muscle is to be maintained or increased but the movement of the joint is either contraindicated because of fracture instability or undersirable because of pain.
2 This is the earliest type of strengthening exercise to use after most fractures because it has the least chance of disturbing the stability of the fracture site.
Examples include contracting the quadriceps muscle while the leg is in a long leg cast or the bicep muscle while the arm is in a long arm cast. These exercises are also referred to as set exercises.
B ) PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CONTRACTURES
C ) USEFUL IF ACTIVE MOVEMENT NOT POSSIBLE
D ) MUSCLE REEDUCATION
E ) STABILISATION
F ) IMPROVEMENT OF LOWER EXTREMITY CIRCULATION