All of the following are indications for open reduction and internal fixation of fractures except -
1) Compound fracture
2) Unsatisfactory closed reduction
3) Multiple trauma
4) Intra-articular fracture
In open reduction, fracture site is exposed and fracture is reduced directly under vision.
Most of the time after open reduction, internal fixation is done.
Failure of closed reduction
Displaced intra-articular fractures
Some displaced epiphyseal injuries (type III and IV)
Major avulsion fractures e.g., fracture of patella
Delayed union and malunion
o. Multiple fractures
Where closed reduction is known to be ineffective e.g., fracture of the neck of the femur.
Fractures with vascular or neural injuries.